The first case of urethral diverticulum was described by Hey in 1805, who carried out the surgical treatment of this affection by transvaginal aproach 1. In 1875 Tait described the first case with total exereses of the diverticulum 2. Between 1854 and 1953 there were only 17 cases in literature and Novak in 1953 reports that "this is a rare condition and no gynocologist will see more than a few cases during his life" 3. However for the first time, using an urethrogram with positive pressure Davis and Cian diagnosed 50 cases in 1956 4.
Nowadays the number of diagnosed diverticulum has increased in the performance of the quality of the image methods and mainly by the evolution of the transvaginal ultrasound.
The diverticulum grows from the urethral wall and consists basically on fibre tissue together with epithelium. On many occasions the epithelial layer may be absent due to chronic inflamation. Besides this, the diverticulum may be adhered to the neghboring tissues, like the periurethral fascia and the anterior wall of the vagina. The mechanism by which the diverticulum is formed implicates in the alterations of the periurethral glands. The obstruction of the duct of the periurethral gland causes secretion retention, followed by infection and occlusion of the same, in this way forming an abscess. This abscess breaks through the urethra, being by traumatism or infection, this way forming the divertiiculum 5.
The real incidence of urethral diverticulum is still unknown. The reports vary from 1,4 to 5% depending on the population that has been studied. 6,7.
Several techniques have been described for treatment of diverticulum, but to have a satisfatory result it is necessary the exereses is done carefully and completely.