1) Surgery. There is a controversy if the surgical treatment of patients with ID that lessens the rate of success in the correction of SUI. The colposuspension of Burch cured only 43% of the patients with MUI and 85% of the patients with an exclusive complaint of SUI (10). On the other hand, other authors did not observe any influence of ID about the rates of cure of SUI (2,11).

In patients that present detrusor instability associated to abdominal pressure enlargement, the pubovaginal sling allowed the correction of the urgeincontinence in 75% of the patients (12). Recently Schrepferman et al evaluated the behavior of the urgency symptoms and urgeincontinence in patients submitted to pubovaginal sling. Of the group of 84 patients, 69 (82%) presented detrusor instability or sensorial urgency in the pre-operative. Complete resolution or improvement of the symptoms occurred in 31 (75.8%) of the patients with ID and 20 (71.4%) of the patients with sensorial urgency. The patients with non inhibited contractions of a high amplitude had a worse prognostic (55.6%) of resolution or improvement (13). Eventually, it may be necessary to do a vesical enlargement for patients with a diurease capacity and low compliace of the bladder.

2) Conservative treatment

2.1 Behavior treatment.

2.1.1 Vesical treatment. The inferior urinary tract physiology may be modulated, in various aspects, by the cerebral cortex. This way it is possible to inhibit in voluntary contractions by the detrusor and induce voluntary contractions or reflexes of some muscular groups. Some patients have as main problems pollakiuria, urgency and urgeincontinence. With the use of a urinary diary (to write for 3 days, liquid ingestion, the volume and the hour of each urination and the episodes of urinary loss). Starting from the obtained data, the treatment is programmed with the intention of increasing and controlling the urgency episodes. The intervals are increased progressively between one and another urination. In our personal experience the adherence is low to this therapeutical proposal. In medical literature favorable results are gotten in 44 to 97% of the cases(14).

2.1.2 Biofeedback. In this behavior technique, visual instruments are used or hearing to make conscious the functions of the detrusor and the urethra. The patients may be taught to recognize and enlarge the contractile force of muscular groups that they had not noticed before. These techniques may be used together with the perineal exercises for improvement of the final results.

2.2 Medicament treatment.

2.2.1 anticholinergic drugs. The physiological vesical contraction is done mainly by the humoral stimuli based on the stimulation of cholinergic receptors in the smooth muscular cells of the bladder(15). Probantine in a dose of 15 to 30 mg of 4/ 4 or 6/ 6 hours, preferably on an empty stomach is the agent that may be used in practical clinic, but with precarious results. The anticholinergic agents enlarge the functional vesical capacity and diminish the amplitude of the no-inhibited contractions. The main collateral effects are: dry mouth, intestinal constipation, blurry vision and tachycardia. It must not be used on patients with glaucoma or carriers of cardiac arrhythmia (16). In practice there are few controlled studies and in general, show very little efficient results of this drug. Additionally, it has a short half life, making it necessary to fraction the drug in multiple daily taking, it makes it difficult to adhere to the treatment.

2.2.2 Muscle tropic relaxants: these drugs act directly on the smooth muscle depressing its activity and they have anticholinergic actions and variable local anesthetics. Oxybutinine is usually used on a daily dosage of 5 to 15 mg divided in 2 to 3 takings. The dosage may be regulated by the patient and adjusted till the maximum level of efficiency with the number of collateral effects acceptable by the patient (dryness of the mouth, specially). The collateral effects are related to the anticholinergic effects ( look above). When compared to propanteline, it is a placebo, with good or excellent results, in relation to symptomatic improvement we obtained in 67% of the patients that used Oxybutinine and 50% of the propanteline group. The urodynamic parameters improved, like the volume of the first no inhibited contraction and the maximum cystometric capacity (17).

2.3 Pelvic floor physiotherapy. The use of the perineal exercises allows the enlargement of the capacity of voluntary reflex contraction of the muscular group, improving the sphincterian function. When they are adequately stimulated, with continuous and repeated exercises, there exists an increase of the amplitude and duration of the contractions of the muscular fibers. The musculature of the pelvic floor as well as the tendinous ligations have a fundamental part in the mechanism of urinary incontinence. Unhappily the published results, in terms of efficiency, are highly variable, and like the treatment protocols, inclusion criteria and cure are not uniform, it is difficult or impossible to compare the treatment series. The positive results of improvement or cure for patients with SUI may arrive at 80% of the cases (18,19).

2.4 Electric stimulation. The electric stimulation may be effective in the treatment of MUI. The frequency used to increase the tonus of the pelvic floor, varies from 50 to 100 Hz, while the inhibitor reflexes of the detrusor are obtained with frequencies between 5 to 20 Hz. So the results can be obtained it is fundamental that there exist unimpaired nervous fibers or partially viable. In our experience, that involved electric stimulation and pelvic floor physiotherapy for 14 weeks in 20 patients with mixed urinary incontinence. We got an accentuated improvement or complete disappearance of the urgency and urgeincontinence symptoms in all the patients. It is curious to observe the answer to electric stimulation, it was superior for the symptoms of ID (100% of accented improvement or cure) than for SUI (59% of accented improvement or cure)(20)..

2.5 Acupuncture. In the cases where the loss component to small efforts and predominate the loss by urgeincontinence, acupuncture may be used as an alternative method, minimally invasive. Even though there are few published works and suffer with the lack of an adequate controlled group, the method seems efficient and free from risk with an index of subjective success of until 77% of the patients. In spite of the cure success of the symptomatology in only 1 to 17 patients the non inhibited contractions were abolished in the urodynamic control study (21). On the other hand, Chang did acupuncture in 52 women, urgency and dysuria. He did a urodynamic study before and with pollakiuria after the treatment and he observed a significant increase in the maximum cystometric capacity, a decrease of the maximum urinary flux and inhibition of the detrusor contractions after treatment. The index of success in the decrease of the symptomatology was of 85% (22).


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